Chikungunya (CHIK) fever is a disease caused by virus of the genus Alphavirus in the family Togaviridae which is transmitted to human by the bite of infected mosquito. The vector of this disease is the Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. The disease was first described by Robinson and Lumsden in 1955 following an outbreak on the Makonde Plateau in 1952. Like malaria and dengue, CHIK has been endemic in Africa and Asia and has caused epidemics in those places. The clinical features of CHIK fever include sudden onset of fever, arthralgia, and rash. CHIK is a self-limiting disease. There is no specific drug therapy available, treatment of CHIK fever is supportive. Therefore, controlling the vector is an effective mean to prevent the disease.
Senin, 04 Mei 2009
By : Soeharyo Hadisaputro
Typhoid fever (TF) is still an important public health problem in many developing countries. In Indonesia, the incidence of TF is estimated about 300 – 810 cases per 100.000 population per year or about 600.000 to 1.500.000 cases per year. The case fatality of TF is estimated 50.000 per year.
Typhoid fever is a systemic infection characterized by continued fever, involvement of lymphoid tissue especially Peyer's patches, spleen enlargement, rose spot on trunk and constipation which is more common than diarrhea.
Mode of transmission of TF is by indirect or direct contact with patients or carriers. The main vehicle of spreading is contaminated water and food. Row fruits and vegetables are important factors in some parts of the world, milk or milk products and shellfish are in others. Transmission to new host occurs through contaminated foods, fluid, fingers, vomites and flies. All ages and both sexes are equally susceptible to infection, however, males are more frequent than female.
Prevention of TF based on epidemiologic factors which act. The prevention of TF includes agent approach, environment strategies and host approach. Prevention strategies and control of TF are : disease surveillance, vaccination of persons at risk, detection and treatment of cases (acute and convalescent), detection and control of chronic carriers, sanitation improvement, protection of animal stocks, promotion of food hygiene and prevention from contaminated food production. Health education in the community has an important role in prevention of TF, particularly about personal hygiene such as washing hands before meal, and providing clean water for washing hand in the public services.
Label: Media Medika Indonesiana
By Yenny* and Zunilda Djanun
The common cold is one of the world’s most prevalent illnesses in adults and children. This upper respiratory tract infection is caused by different kinds of agents. Effects on health, well-being, and productivity are significant. Preparations made from plants of the genus Echinacea are widely used for the prevention and treatment of colds. Three species of Echinacea used for medicinal purposes are Echinacea purpurea, Echinacea angustifolia, and Echinacea pallida. The beneficial effects of Echinacea are thought to be due to its immunomodulatory activity, most notably activation of macrophages, polymorphonuclear leukocytes and natural killer cells. Many clinical trials, including a number of blind randomized trials, have reported health benefits. Although these studies show beneficial effects, recommendations on Echinacea use cannot be made due to lack of product standardization and variability in dosage, sample size and methodological quality used in the trials. Therefore, well-designed studies with consistent standardized measures are required for assessment of the efficacy of Echinacea in treatment of common cold and influenza.
By Fajar Arifin Gunawijaya
Tea is an infusion of the leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant, which is not to be confused with so-called ‘herbal’ teas. Some biologically active chemicals in tea include flavonoids, caffeine and fluoride. For as long as people have been drinking tea, there have been health benefits associated with it. However, it has only been within the past 20 to 30 years that scientific studies have been conducted to investigate the validity of these claims. Many animal studies, and recently an increasing number of human studies, including epidemiological studies and clinical trials, have examined the relationship between tea drinking and health. Overall, observational studies in humans suggest that daily consumption of at least 3 cups of tea may be associated with a risk reduction of mortality (44%) after myocardial infarction compared with non-tea drinkers. The possibility that tea consumption reduces the risk of cardiovascular events remains open to the need for further clinical trials to clarify the effects of tea polyphenols in humans in order to recommend their use against cardiovascular diseases.
By I Made Setiawan
Leptospirosis is a world-wide zoonotic disease, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. The disease is found in rural and urban areas with poor environmental conditions. The spectrum of human disease ranges from subclinical infection to severe clinical disease with multi-organ failure (Weil’s disease) and high mortality rate, and depends both on the host and the infecting serovar. Leptospirosis may occur either sporadically or in the context of an outbreak and is commonly related to occupational or recreational activities that involve direct or indirect contact with the urine of animal species that are reservoirs of the disease. The disease infects man through contact with contaminated environments or direct contact with carrier animals such as rats, dogs, cattle, pigs, etc. Leptospirosis has clinical symptoms similar to such diseases as dengue, malaria, typhoid, influenza, thus laboratory methods are required for early detection to facilitate appropriate treatment of patients. The diagnosis of leptospirosis should be considered in any patient presenting with an abrupt onset of fever, chills, conjunctival suffusion, headache, myalgia, and jaundice. Suspicion is further increased if there is a history of occupational or recreational exposure to infected animals or to an environment potentially contaminated with animal urine. Treatment commonly consists of administration of antibiotics such as penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, tetracycline and doxycycline. Prevention by immunization is uncommon, as the available vaccines are ineffective in preventing the disease. In general, prevention is by avoiding environmental exposure.